THE GODDESS OF BUTRINT: A MYTHOLOGICAL PARADIGM

Irena Buzi

Abstract


The object (no. inv. 1227), the so-called head of “Goddess of Butrint" and the head of "Apollo, the Anzio’s type", was discovered in the area of the theatre of Butrint during the excavation campaign (1928) by Luigi Maria Ugolini. In addition to the head, a large set of sculptures were discovered. After a detailed examination of them, Ugolini combined the head with one of the found statues, that of the "Nemesis of Rhamnous" type, and called the whole statue “Goddess of Butrint". It is being said that in 1930 the head was presented to Mussolini by King Zog, but the whole statue, head-and-body, has been displayed to the Albanian pavilion of the 'Mostra d'Oltremare' in Naples in 1940. The body don’t seem to have been returned to Albania, because it was destroyed by allied bombardment in 1943, whereas the head of "Goddess of Butrint" has been returned in 1982. The lost body and the stylistic and material differences between the body and the head of the statue have influenced how the object no. 1227 is treated. Due to these factors, in most of the scientific debate by foreign and Albanian scholars, the object is considered as a fragmentary and at the same time unique sculpture. Consequently, it had widely been interpreted and known as the head of Apollo of the Anzio’s type, from a prototype of Praxiteles school, whose dating was determined to belong to either the fourth century BC or the Julio-Claudian’s dynasty. This paper, based on the historical grounds, on the analysis of stone carving technique and on the analysis of stylistic sculptural elements, turns the focus on the so-called "Goddess of Butrint" statue as a whole one. Consequently, it is concluded that the object no. 1227, together with the statue of "Nemesis of Rhamnous" type, is a representation of a mythological paradigm where the goddess Themis merges with the god Apollo as symbols of the victory of Augustus in Actium and of the inauguration of a new cult - of the (pre) deification of Livia. It is also concluded that, from the perspective of the work of the sculptor, it has been taken into account a model of Apollo Anzio’s type and interpreted with feminine characteristics. Technically, the head has been worked on the front part and from the back it has only been sketched, presenting a variety of stone carving stages. Also the head is asymmetrical and the signs of polychrome residues appear on it.

Keywords:  sculpture, Goddess of Butrint, head of Anzio Apollo, goddess Themis, Nemesis of Rhamnous, Actium, Augustus, Livia, Buthrotum.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, Sh. (1966). The Technique of Greek Sculpture in the Archaic and Classical Periods. British School of Archaeology at Athens. Thames & Hudson.

Albanien. 1988. Schätze aus dem Land der Skipetaren [Katalogu i ekspozitës, Hildesheim, 1988]. Mayence: Zabern.

Bergemann, J.(1998). Die Römische Kolonie Von Butrint Und Die Romanisierung Griechenlands. München: n/a.

Bieber, M. (1940). Review of Review of Ricerche e Studi Sulla Scultura Greca Del Sec. IV, by M. Marella. American Journal of Archaeology 44 (4): 560–61.

Budina, Dh. (1988). “Butrinti Pararomak.” In Butroti, 6–108. Tiranë: Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH, Qendra e Kërkimeve Arkeologjike.

Bumke, H. (2008). “Vom Verhältnis Der Römer Zu Den Kultbildern Der Griechen, in: K. Junker.” In Original Und Kopie. Formen Und Konzepte Der Nachahmung in Der Antiken Kunst. Akten Des Kolloquiums in Berlin 17.–19. Februar 2005, edited by A Stähli, 109–133. Wiesbaden.

Claridge, A. (1990). “Ancient Techniques of Making Joins in Marble Statuary.” In Marble: Art Historical and Scientific Perspectives on Ancient Sculpture, edited by J. Paul Getty Museum, 135–62. Malibu, Calif: J. Paul Getty Museum.

De Maria, S. (2018). “Dal mito di Enea alla politica nei Balcani: la Missione Archeologica Italiana in Albania, 1926-1943.” In Caro Nemico. Soldati pistoiesi e toscani nella Resistenza in Albania e Montenegro 1943-1945, 251–75. Pisa: Edizioni ETC.

Gilkes, O.J. (2002). “How the Goddess Lost Her Head: The Myth and Reality of the Looting of Butrint,1927-97.” Culture Without Context, no. 10 (Spring): 4–12.

Gilkes, O.J., ed. (2003). The Theatre at Butrint: Luigi Maria Ugolini’s Excavations at Butrint 1928-1932 (Albania Antica IV). British School at Athens.

Gkikaki, M. (2016). “Remembering Classical Greece: Roman Imperial Women and their Images.” In Im Schatten der Alten? Ideal und Lebenswirklichkeit im römischen Griechenland: 3. Heidelberger Altertumswissenschaftliches Studierendenkolloquium, 8.-10. November 2013, edited by Johannes Fouquet and Lydia Gaitanou. Peleus, Band 71. Mainz Ruhpolding: Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen.

Goette, H.R. (1985). “Das Theater von Butrint Und Seine Ausstattung.” In MDAVerb 16. Vol.28. 1.

Graf, F. (2008). Apollo. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. Florence, US: Routledge.

Hansen, I.L. (2007). “The Trojan Connection: Butrint and Rome.” In Roman Butrint. An Assessment, edited by Richard Hodges and Inge Lyse Hansen, 44–61. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Hansen, I.L. (2009). Hellenistic and Roman Butrint. Bilingual edition. London: Butrint Foundation.

Hjort Lange, C. (2009). Impact of Empire: Res Publica Constituta : Actium, Apollo and the Accomplishment of the Triumviral Assignment (1). Boston, NL: Brill.

Hodges, R. (2006). Eternal Butrint: A UNESCO World Heritage Site in Albania. London: Butrint Foundation.

Hodges, R. (2011). Butrinti i përjetshëm: një qendër e trashëgimisë botërore të UNESCO-s në Shqipëri. Tiranë: Toena.

Islami, S. (1982). “Koka e «hyjneshës » së Butrintit u kthye në atdhe / La tête de «la déesse » de Butrint retournée à sa patrie.” Iliria 12 (1): 278–80.

Johnson, F.P. (1941). “Ricerche e Studi Sulla Scultura Greca Del Sec. IV, Part I: Un Tipo Apollineo. M. Marella.” Classical Philology 36 (2): 203–4.

Korkuti, M. (1971). Shqipëria Arkeologjike. Tiranë: Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës.

Lawton, C.L., and Mauzy, C.A. (2006). Marbleworkers in the Athenian Agora. Vol. 27. ASCSA.

Lepore, G., and Muka, B. (2016). “Le Sculture.” In Antiche Città e Paesaggi Di Albania Antica (Museo Storico Nazionale), edited by Giuseppe Lepore, 167–71. Roma.

Palagia, O. (2003a). “An Imperial Portrait from Aulis.” In Romanisation Und Resistenz in Plastik, Architektur Und Inschriften Der Provinzen Des Imperium Romanum. Neue Funde Und Forschungen, edited by Peter Nolke, Friederike Naumann-Steckner, and Beate Schneider, 537–47. Mainz am Rhein.

Palagia, O. (2003b). “Did the Greeks Use a Pointing Machine?” Edited by François Baratte. Bulletin Archéologique, Antiquité, archéologie classique, no. 30: 55–64.

Palagia, O. (2006). “Marble Carving Techniques.” In Greek Sculpture: Function, Materials, and Techniques in the Archaic and Classical Periods, edited by Olga Palagia, 243–79. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Papadopoulos, J. (1996). “Considerazioni sulla dea di Butrinto.” In L’archeologo scopre la storia: Luigi M. Ugolini, 1895-1936 : giornata internazionale di studi., 79–88. Quaderni bertinoresi. Bertinoro.

Picard, Ch. (1941). “7. Marella (M.), Ricerche e studi sulla scultura greca del secolo IV : un tipo apollineo. Roma, établ. Europa, 1939.” Revue des Études Grecques 54 (254): 136–37.

Pojani-Dhamo, I. (2005). “Statuja monumentale e togatit nga Butrinti / A New Togate Statue from the Forum at Butrint.” Iliria 32 (1): 211–36.

Portale, E. (2013). “Augustae, Matrons, Goddesses: Imperial Women in the Sacred Space.” In Roman Power and Greek Sanctuaries. Forms of Interaction and Communication, edited by Marco Galli, 10:205–43. Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene.

Prendi, F. (1958). Butrinti. Tiranë: Akademia e Shkencave.

Rockwell, P. (1994). The Art of Stoneworking: A Reference Guide. Cambridge University Press.

Stafford, E. (2013). “‘The People to the Goddess Livia’. Attic Nemesis and the Roman Imperial Cult.” Kernos. Revue Internationale et Pluridisciplinaire de Religion Grecque Antique, no. 26 (October): 205–38.

Trimble, J.(2011). Women and Visual Replication in Roman Imperial Art and Culture. Cambridge University Press.

Ugolini, L.M. (1928). “La Dea Di Butrinto.” Bollettino D’arte Del Ministero Della Pubblica Istruzione. Rivista Dei Musei Gallerie E Monumenti D’italia Diretta Da Arduino Colasanti Direttore Generale Delle Antichità E Belle Arti, 1, Anno 8 (6): 258–78.

Ugolini, L.M. (1935). “Nuove Scoperte Della Missione Archeologica Italiana in Albania: La ‘Grande Ercolanese’ Di Butrinto.” Bollettino D’arte Del Ministero Della Pubblica Istruzione. Rivista Dei Musei Gallerie E Monumenti D’italia Diretta Da Arduino Colasanti Direttore Generale Delle Antichità E Belle Arti, 3, Anno 29 (2): 68–82.

Ugolini, L.M. (1937). Butrinto: il mito d’Enea, gli scavi. Roma: Instituto grafico tiberino.

Ugolini, L.M. (2000). Butrinti: Miti i Eneas, Gërmimet. Translated by Zef Simoni. Tiranë: Istituto Italiano di Cultura.

Ugolini, L.M. (2009). Shqipëria e Lashtë. Translated by Qemal Velija. Migjeni.

Zeqo, M. (2000). “Grishësi i Muzeut Historik Kombëtar.” Muzeu Historik Kombëtar.

Zeqo, M. (2006). “Dea e Butrintit, koka e një burri në trupin e një gruaje.” Koha jonë, April 30, 2006, nr. 96 edition.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i10.1776

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i10.1776.g2229

Copyright © 2012-2018 ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association for Anglo-American Studies,Tetovo, Macedonia.

All Rights Reserved.

The publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/  View Legal Code                                                                                                                 

ISSN (print): 1857-8179. ISSN (online): 1857-8187.

Disclaimer: Articles on Anglisticum have been reviewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication.

The Journal, Editors and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.