ECHINOCOCCOSIS IN RUMINANTS IN ALBANIA-RISES AND RISKS

Bejo Bizhga, Eglantina Xhemollari, Emilian Shabani, Dritan Laçi, Merije Elezi, Xhezair Idrizi

Abstract


Echinococcus spp. causes cystic echinococcosis which is characterized by created parasitic cysts occurring in the liver or the lung but also the brain, spleen, or kidneys. Echinococcosis affects all types of herbivorous animals and humans, but it is more common in sheep because the possibility of infestation in pastures is greater. The sources of the disease are infested dogs that serve as a source of disease for herbivores and humans. Our data over the years indicate that echinococcosis affects more sheep (28.5-50%), cattle (10-25%) and fewer goats (5-15%). The results of the echinococcus monitoring in sheep and goats show that the lungs and liver are equally affected, while in cows the lung is more affected than the liver. Overall, there is no significant difference between the pulmonary and hepatic localization of the echinococcus cysts (45% and 51%), while in the organs and tissues there are 4% of the cysts. People are infested with fruits, vegetables, water and hands stained with Echinococcus eggs. The most vulnerable are people that work with animals (dogs), and small ruminant farmers in which echinococcus is three times higher than the other population, people living in rural areas, poorer and people in need. The level of infestation of humans and animals by echinococcosis directly reflects the level of dog's infestation and the level of veterinary and hygienic measures. Reducing the level of risk to humans involves the implementation of personal hygiene and continuous washing of hands and herbs. This becomes extremely important in cases where the territory is populated by dogs that routinely need to be dehelmized four times a year periodically every 3 months. To reduce the level of infestation by echinococcosis, The animals' condition in the slaughterhouse should be carried out under the supervision of the veterinarian and never should be given to dogs consumption liver and the lungs of echinococcus cysts.

Keywords: Echinococcosis, cyst, sheep, goats, cattle.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i0.1854

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i0.1854.g2281

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