Emilian Shabani, Dardan Shedula, Kastriot Belegu


The spleen is one of the most susceptible organs to primary tumours, metastasis, and a wide range of diseases of the hematopoietic system. Therefore, detailed assessment of the spleen is of great importance in veterinary medicine, especially in dogs, due to their economic and sentimental value, and as an experimental model in human medicine. Considering the recent advances in diagnostic imaging in companion animals, this review aims to describe the applicability of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography (qualitative and quantitative), Doppler, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for evaluating the spleen in dogs. The ARFI elastography is a recent ultrasound method that can provide reference values and aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of splenic abnormalities routinely encountered in veterinary practice. Conventional ultrasonography of the spleen combined with haemodynamic analysis by Doppler and contrast enhanced ultrasonography is an important tool in diagnosis and triage.

Keywords: B-mode, contrast enhanced ultrasonography, dog spleen, Doppler, elastography.

Full Text:



Bhatia KS, Tong CS, Cho CC, Yuen EH, Lee YY, Ahuja AT. Shear wave elastography of thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice: Preliminary observations and utility for detecting malignancy. Eur Radiol 2012; 22:2397-2406.

Brito MBS, Feliciano MAR, Coutinho LN, Uscategui RR, Simoes APR, Maronezi MC, Almeida VT, Crivelaro RM, Gasser B, Pavan L, Vicente WRR. Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of testicles in adults domestic felines. Reprod Domest Anim 2015; 50:730-734.

Buergelt CD. Nodular splenic disease in dogs. Vet Med 2001; 96:766-773.

Couto CG, Hammer AS. Diseases of the lymph nodes and the spleen. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, editors. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2010. p. 1930-1946.

Carrillo J, Soler M, Lucas X, Agut A. Colour and pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic study of the canine testis. Reprod Domest Anim 2012; 47:655-659.

Carvalho CF, Chammas MC, Cerri G. Princípios físicos do Doppler em ultrassonografia. Ciênc Rural 2008; 38:872-879.

Carvalho CF, Chammas MC. Elastography – a new technology associated with ultrasonography. Clín Veterinária 2013; 17:62-70.

Comstock C. Ultrasound elastography of breast lesions. Ultrasound Clin 2011; 6:407-415.

Dudea SM, Giurgiu CR, Dumitriu D. Value of ultrasound elastography in the diagnosis and management of prostate carcinoma. Med Ultrason 2011; 13:45-53.

Feliciano MAR, Garcia PHS, Vicente WRR. Introdução à ultrassonografia. In: Feliciano MA, Canola JC, Vicente WRR, editors. Diagnóstico por imagem em cães e gatos. 1st ed. São Paulo: MedVet; 2015a. p. 53-57.

Feliciano MAR, Maronezi MC, Simões APR, Uscategui RR, Maciel GS, Carvalho CF, Canola JC, Vicente WRR. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of prostate and testes of healthy dogs: Preliminary results. J Small Anim Pract 2015b; 56:320-324.

Feliciano MAR, Maronezi MC, Brito MS, Simões APR, Maciel GS, Castanheira TLL, Garrido E, Uscategui RR, Miceli NG, Vicente, WRR. Doppler and elastography as complementary diagnostic methods for mammary neoplasms in female cat. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2015c; 67:935-939.

Feliciano MAR, Maronezi MC, Pavan L, Castanheira TL, Simões APR, Carvalho CF, Canola JC, Vicente WRR. ARFI elastography as complementary diagnostic method of mammary neoplasm in female dogs – preliminary results. J Small Anim Pract 2014a; 55:504-508.

Feliciano MAR, Maronezi MC, Crivellenti LZ, Crivellenti SB, Simões APR, Brito MBS, Garcia PHS, Vicente WRR. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of the spleen in healthy adult cats – a preliminary study. J Small Anim Pract 2014b; 56:180-183.

Feliciano MAR, Nepomuceno AC, Crivelaro RM. Foetal echoencephalography and Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery in canine foetuses. J Small Anim Pract 2013; 54:149-152.

Feliciano MAR, Muzzi LAL, Leite CAL. Two-dimensional conventional, high resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography in the evaluation of pregnant bitch. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2007; 59:1333-1337.

Fry MM, Mcgavin MD. Bone marrow, blood cells, and lymphatic system. In: Mcgavin MD, Zachary JF. Pathologic basis of veterinary disease. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:743-832.

Garcia PHS, Feliciano MAR, Carvalho CF, Crivellenti LZ, Maronezi MC, Almeida VT, Uscategui RR, Vicente WRR. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of kidneys in healthy adult cats: Preliminary results. J Small Anim Pract 2015; 56:505-509.

Gil MEU, Froes TR, Feliciano MAR Baço. In: Feliciano MAR, Canola JC, Vicente WRR. Diagnóstico por imagem em cães e gatos. 1st ed. São Paulo: Med Vet; 2015:579-601.

Goddi A, Bonardi M, Alessi S. Breast elastography: A literature review. J Ultrasound 2012; 15:192-198.

Haers H, Saunders JH. Review of clinical characteristics and applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 234:460-470.

Hecht S, Mai W. Spleen. In: Penninck D, D’ Anjou MA. Atlas of small animal ultrasonograph. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell: 2015. p. 239-258.

Holdsworth A, Bradley K, Birch S. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen, and kidneys. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2014; 55:620-627.

Hörmann M. Preface. In: Albrecht T, Thorelius L, Solbiati L, Cova L, Frauscher F. 1nd ed. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in clinical practice: Liver, prostate, pancreas, kidney, and lymph nodes. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2006.

Ivancic-Arndt M, Seiler G. Contrast harmonic ultrasound of splenic hemangiosarcoma and associated liver nodules in dogs. American College of Veterinary Radiology Annual Meeting 2007:19.

Jeon S, Lee G, Lee SK, Kim H, Yu D, Choi J. Ultrasonographic elastography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in clinically normal beagle dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015; 56:425-431.

Kalantarinia K, Okusa MD. Ultrasound contrast agents in the study of kidney function in health and disease. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech 2007; 4:153-158.

Lindner JR, Song J, Jayaweera AR, Sklenar J, Kaul S. Microvascular rheology of definity microbubbles after intra-arterial and intravenous administration. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2002; 15:396-403.

Lock G, Schmidt C, Helmich F, Stolle E, Dieckmann KP. Early experience with contrastenhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of testicular masses: A feasibility study. Urology 2009:1049-1053.

Maronezi MC, Feliciano MAR, Crivellenti LZ, Borin-Crivellenti S, Silva PES, Zampolo C, Pavan L, Gasser B, Simões APR, Maciel GS, Canola JC, Vicente WRR. Spleen evaluation using contrast enhanced. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2015a; 67:1528-1532.

Maronezi MC, Feliciano MAR, Crivellenti LZ, Simões APR, Bartlewski PM, Gill I, Canola JC, Vicente WRR. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy dogs of different ages. J Small Anim Pract 2015b; 56:180-183.

Mattoon JS, Nyland TG. Spleen. Small animal diagnostic ultrasound. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier; 2015. p. 400-327.

Moris J, Dobson J. Tumores variados. Oncologia em pequenos animais. São Paulo: Roca, 2007. p. 272-278.

Nogueira AC, Morcerf F, Moraes AV, Carrinho M, Dohmann H. Ultrassonografia com agentes de contrastes por microbolhas na avaliação da perfusão renal em indivíduos normais. Rev Bras Ecocard 2002; 15:74-78.

O’Brien RT. Improved detection of metastatic hepatic hemangiosarcoma nodules with contrast ultrasound in three dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007; 48:146-148.

Ohlerth S, Rüefli E, Poirier V. Contrast harmonic imaging of the normal canine spleen. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007; 48:451-456.

Ophir J, Alam KS, Garra BS. Elastography: imaging the elastic properties of soft tissues with ultrasound. J Med Ultrason 2002; 29:155-171.

Rademacher N, Schur D, Gaschen F, Kearney M. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the pancreas in healthy dogs and in dogs with acute pancreatitis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015; 57:58-64.

Rodaski S, Piekarz CH. Diagnóstico e estadiamento clínico. In: Daleck CR, De Nardi A B, Rodaski S. Oncologia em cães e gatos. 11th ed. São Paulo: Roca; 2009 p.52-73.

Salwei RM, O’Brien RT, Matheson JS. Use of contrast harmonic ultrasound for the diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunts in three dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2003; 44:301-305.

Schärz M, Ohlerth S, Achermann R. Evaluation of quantified contrast-enhanced color and power Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of vascularity and perfusion of naturally occurring tumours in dogs. AJVR 2005; 66:21-29.

Schneider AG, Calzavacca P, Schelleman A, Huynh T, Bailey M, May C, Bellomo R. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound evaluation of renal microcirculation in sheep. Intensive Care Med Exp 2014; 2:1-14.

Sharpley JL, Marolf AJ, Reichle JK, Bachand AM, Randall EK. Color and power Doppler ultrasonography for characterization of splenic masses in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2012; 53:586-590.

Souza MB, Mota Filho AC, Sousa CVS, Monteiro CLB, Carvalho GG, Pinto JN, Linhares JCS, Silva LDM. Triplex Doppler evaluation of the testes in dogs of different sizes. Pesq Vet Bras 2014; 34:1135-1140.

Takeda CSI, Carvalho CF, Chammas MC. Ultrassonografia contrastada na medicina veterinária – revisão. Clín Veterinária 2012; 17:08-114.

Volta A, Manfredi S, Vignoli M, Russo M, England G, Rossi F, Bigliardi E, Di Ianni F, Parmigiani E, Bresciani C, Gnudi G. Use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in chronic pathologic canine testes. Reprod Domest Anim 2014; 49:202-209.

Waller K R, O’Brien RT, Zagzebski JA. Quantitative contrast ultrasound analysis of renal perfusion in normal dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007; 48:373-377.

Warren-Smith CMR, Andrew S, Mantis P, Lamb CR. Lack of associations between ultrasonographic appearance of parenchymal lesions of the canine liver and histological diagnosis. J Small Anim Pract 2012; 53:168-173.

Wdowiak M, Rychlik A, Nieradka R, Nowicki M. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in canine liver examination. Pol J Vet Sci 2010; 13:767-773.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i0.1856

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i0.1856.g2283

Copyright © 2012-2020 ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies,Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia.

All Rights Reserved.

The publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/  View Legal Code                                                                                                                 

ISSN (print): 1857-8179. ISSN (online): 1857-8187.

Disclaimer: Articles on Anglisticum have been reviewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication.

The Journal, Editors and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.