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Dervish Alimi


sually, the structural syntax studies the phrase-s as a group of words pronounced altogether and conveying a message or an information about: the doer of action that is preceeding the predicater (NP), the action itself (VP) and the object of action (NP), that is following the predicater as well as the  information  about  the  circumstances  of  the  action  (PP, Adv.P),  etc.  On  the  other  hand,  the functional syntax studies the sentence elements which are also conveying similar massages or information. Thus, the subject consists of the NP and is placed before the predicator, whereas the Object is also a NP, but placed after the predicator. The Predicator as a heart or nucleus of the sentence is in the same time a VP,  describing the action of the doer and his situation. The PP is usually an Adjunct, because it gives information about the circumstances of time, place and manner in which the action occurs. The adjective phrase as a special  independent  phrase  is  usually  in  the  position  of  the  Subject  complement,  because it  gives  the description  of  the  subject  as  a  doer  of  action.  Conclusively,  there  as  a  functional  correlation between  the phrases  as  groups  of  words  containing  information  about  the  participants  in  the  event  and the  sentence elements as constituents of the sentence. Those  who  are  familiar  with the analysis of the diagram  of  the phrase and its headword and modifiers, are strongly and very well qualified to identify the elements of the sentence,  such  as  the  information  about  the  subject  as  a  doer  of  action,  the  predicator as  the  main  verb within the clause or the sentence, the direct and indirect object of the transmitted action, and the adjunct expressing the circumstances in which the main action occurs. All these elements are the constituents of the five basic sentence patterns.

Key words: phrase, diagram, headword modifier, subject, object, predicator, circumstance, clause, sentence.

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