Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease Risk Factors related to Colorectal Cancer
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an increasing risk for colorectal cancer which is believed to begin from no dysplasia progressing to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma, although colorectal cancer can arise without proceeding through each of these steps. As regards to the risk factors predisposing to colorectal cancer in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease, it seems that the risk increases with longer duration and greater anatomic extent of colitis, the degree of inflammation, and the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis and family history of colorectal cancer. Concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, it is now well established that the molecular alterations responsible for sporadic colorectal cancer, elucidated namely chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation, also play a role in colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Chemoprevention strategies include the management of medicaments such as aminosalicylates, ursodeoxycholic acid, and possibly folic acid, the exact role of which remains to be elucidated.
Keywords: bowel disease, inflammation, patients, dysplasia, cytokines, cancer, smoking, chemoprevention, etc.
How to Cite
1. In consideration of the undertaking set out in paragraph 2, and upon acceptance by ANGLISTICUM for publication of the manuscript in the Journal, I/We hereby assign and transfer publication rights to ANGLISTICUM, whereas I/We retain the copyright for the manuscript. This assignment provides ANGLISTICUM the sole right and responsibility to publish the manuscript in its printed and online version, and/or in other media formats.
2. In consideration of this assignment, ANGLISTICUM hereby undertakes to prepare and publish the manuscript in the Journal, subject only to its right to refuse publication if there is a breach of the Author’s warranty in paragraph 4 or if there are other reasonable grounds.
3. Editors and the editorial board of ANGLISTICUM are empowered to make such editorial changes as may be necessary to make the Manuscript suitable for publication.
4. I/We hereby acknowledge that: (a) The manuscript submitted is an original work and that I/We participated in the work substantively and thus I/We hereby are prepared to take public responsibility for the work; (b) I/We hereby have seen and approved the manuscript as submitted and that the manuscript has not either been published, submitted or considered for publication elsewhere; (c) The text, illustration, and any other materials included in the manuscript do not infringe upon any existing copyright or other rights of anyone.
5. I/We hereby indemnify ANGLISTICUM and the respective Editors of the Journal as mentioned in paragraph 3, and hold them harmless from any loss, expense or damage occasioned by a claim or suit by a third party for copyright infringement, or any suit arising out of any breach of the foregoing warranties as a result of publication of the manuscript.