The State of Local Cattle of Busha Type in Albania and Kosovo. Their Identification and Morphometric Description


  • Naim Rexhaj Agricultural University of Tirana
  • Lumturi Papa
  • Anila Hoda
  • Kristaq Kume


Local cattle population of Busha type are still found in remote areas of  Albania and Kosovo.  They have survived until now because of geographic isolation and harsh conditions that are not suitable for exotic breeds. The number of these populations is rapidly declining putting them in danger of extinction. Conservation of this genetic diversity is challenging for both countries.  Identification of local cattle populations of Busha type farmed in different regions of Albania and Kosovo , their phenotypic and genetic characterization, has been and currently is one of interesting study subject with the aim of  compiling a sustainable breeding strategy that will help to run a national or cross border conservation program. The study was conducted in 5 regions distributed in the north-west and north –east of Albania whereas in Kosovo the east and south-west regions both countries: The number of local  cattle’s sampled of Busha type for phenotypic characterization was 94 of which 86 were females and 8 were males. The linear body measurement of  adult animals only were done according to FAO guidelines 2012. The means of morph metric variables were calculated  for animals not divided by sex. Local cattle of Busha type is characterized  of different coat colors  from intensive red, reddish, dark and light  brown. Velipoja local cattle has the lowest mean of wither height, heart girth and body length than other populations (103.07, 137.57 and 113.5 cm). It can be noticed that the populations located in the border between Albania and Kosovo (Kukes and Prizren regions) as well as the population of Gjilan  have similar mean values of wither height, heart girth and budy length. Higher mean value of wither height is found at Gjakova local cattle (133.0 cm). Despite these small differences in body size the milk production is rather different between Albanian and Kosovo populations. Discriminate analyses model was used to evaluate the level of local differentiation of cattle populations. Three groups are formed: Back Rjoll herd of Albania showing  constant differentiation from other groups, the group composed by three herds located in Kukes (Albania), Prizren and Gjilan(Kosovo); the  group  where we find only Gjakova herd. The results of discrimanate analyses shows that the process of evolution of morphometric trais and selection have been associated with the presence of isolation in distance. The results need further verifications.  

Keywords: Local cattle, identification, morphometric measurement, local differentiation.    



Bytyqi H, Mehemeti H. 2013. Busha cattle as a cattle genetic resources in Kososvo. Busha old cattle in the Balkan. Evaluation of current status of Busha cattle and develop a regional breeding program for the conservation and sustainable economic use. (ERFP-Project).

FAO Guidelines. 2012. Phenotypic characterization of Animal Genetic Resources.

FAO. 2007b. Global plan of action for animal genetic resources and the interlaken declaration adopted by the International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Interlaken, Switzerland, 3–7 September 2007 (available at a1404e00.htm). Geweke, J. 1992. Bayesian.

Ivica Medugorac, Claudia E. Veit-Kensch,Jelena Ramljak,Muhamed Brka,Božidarka Marković, Srđan Stojanović, Hysen Bytyqi, Ljupche Kochoski, Kristaq Kume, Hans-Peter Grünenfelder, Jörn Bennewitz, Martin Förster. Conservation priorities of genetic diversity in domesticated metapopulations: a study in taurine cattle breeds. Ecology and evolution. Volume 1, Issue 3 November 2011 Pages 408–420.

Kompan, D., Cividini, A., and SimcIˇ c, M. (2008). Current Status of the Brachycerous Cattle Populations in the South Eastern European Countries and Strategies for Their Sustainable Conservation. Slovenia: Biotechnical Faculty, Zootechnical Department.

Kume K., Papa L. 2013. Busha cattle in Albania. Busha old cattle in the Balkan. Evaluation of current status of Busha cattle and develop a regional breeding program for the conservation and sustainable economic use. (ERFP-Project).

Medugorac, I., Medugorac, A., Russ, I., Veit-Kensch, C. E., Taberlet, P., Luntz, B., et al. (2009). Genetic diversity of European cattle breed highlights the conservation value of traditional unselected breeds with high effective population size. Mol. Ecol. 18, 3394–3410. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009. 04286.x

Nsoso, S.J., Podis, B., Otsogile, E., Mokhutshwane, B.S. & Ahmadu, B. 2004. Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Tswana goats and sheep breeds in Botswana: continuous traits. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 36: 789–800.

O. Yilmaz, O. Akin, S. Metin Yener , M. Ertugrul and R. T. Wilson. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: cattle local breeds and types and their conservation status. Animal Genetic Resources, 2012, 50, p.65–73.

Odenbroek J.K. 1999. Genebanks and the conservation of farm animal genetic resources. Lelystat, The netherland, DLO Institute for Animal Science and Helth. P. 120.

Rexha N., Papa L., Kume K. Description of production system and morplhological characteristics of four local cattle populations of Albania and Kosovo. International Symposium on Animal Science 2016 24-25 November 2016. Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia p. 171-178.

Sowande, O.S., Oyewale, B.F. & Iyasere, O.S. 2010. Age and sex dependent regression models for predicting the live weight of West African Dwarf goat from body measurements. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42: 969–975.




How to Cite

Rexhaj, N., Papa, L., Hoda, A., & Kume, K. (2018). The State of Local Cattle of Busha Type in Albania and Kosovo. Their Identification and Morphometric Description. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 7(1), 78–86. Retrieved from



Volume 7, No.1, January, 2018