• Përparim Skuka University of Tetova "Fadil Sulejmani" Tetova


The aim of this paper is the analysis of errors commonly madein the 9-th grade students in urban and rural Albanian schools in the academic year 2018-2019 in using the passive voice. A quantitative approach is applied in conducting the research. The samples of the research are 24 students in both schools, 12 students in each school. The descriptive analysis method is used in this research to find the errors of the students and to analyze the data. “The major focus of this study is the Contrastive Analysis between the English passive forms through their Albanian correspondents; contribute to the theoretical linguistics, to the general theory of contrastive linguistics, to the development of contrastive studies in Albanian, to the development of Albanian prescriptive grammars.”[1] Theory of English grammar was used to know and understand the structure of English passive voice.While, the theory of error analysis was used to analyze the student’ errors based on the Linguistic Category Taxonomy particularly for the English passive voice, and Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis was used to find out the similarity and the difference between English and Albanian passive voice. My assumption is that the difficulties the Albanian learners of English face are due to the following: 1. English and Albanian being typologically two different languages, bilingual ones: a. English as a typical analytical language.[2] b.The paradigm of the verb in the Albanian language is very wealthy in word-form. It includes 251 analytic and synthetic forms, from them, 49 are synthetic forms. These synthetic forms are built mostly using two grammatical tools: “ndajshtesat eptimore” which play the main role, in the verb eptim, and morphological changing, to which play not only the matter role in the grammatical forms building.[3] The English language in comparison with the Albanian and other languages has a lot of similarities and differences in passives. This study points out and finds differences and similarities between English and Albanian passives. Both of these languages have to be understood by the learners prior to learning the target language. First, besides, the Albanian learners in learning the English language are frequently influenced by Albanian structure and to transfer the forms and meanings from Albanian native language to the English language. Second, the results of data analysis clearly show that most passives are marked with “jam” and  “folje në të tashme” dhe “pjesore e shkuar e disa foljeve te shqipes ne prapashtesa –re (ne bere), -ar (ne punuar)”, which are also translated into passive in English (‘be’ plus ‘past participle’) plus ‘by-agent’. Some passives, namely translated into passives in English and some others are translated into actives. Third, in translating Albanian passives into English shifts inevitably take place on a grammatical level, on the aspect of tense. Part of the study is transitive, non-transitive, infinitives, its structure and the omission of it, participles and its comprehensions, gerunds, the structure and the use of them that change a lot from both languages, including the forms of –ing in comparing to English, the forms of  “pa larë, me të larë dhe një të larë”, which do not have forms, changing the forms of tenses, the use of “by-phrase”,  passive clauses, incorrectness of ‘be’ and its omission, the correct use of conditionals, the misspelling of modals, wrong using of the order of passives, misformation of conditionals, the future “going to”, modals, passive infinitives all in passives.

Keywords:  Be, modal, transitive, non-transitive, by,  passive voice,  contrastive analysis, error analysis, data analyzing.





How to Cite

Skuka, P. (2020). ERROR ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE IN THE WRITINGS OF ALBANIAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 9(7), 35–71. Retrieved from



Volume 9, No.7, July, 2020