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Luljeta Xhemaili


Ethnic minority means a group of people with different ethnic backgrounds as opposed to the majority of the population living in a state. There are national minorities in every country of the world, but not in every country they are recognized by their legal status, fundamental rights, representation in institutions, use of language and national symbols, etc. International law obliges states to "respect" the individual rights of minorities to participate effectively in public life, including matters relating to the identity of minorities at the national and local levels in the decision-making process. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in the Council of Europe requires states to "create" the necessary conditions for such participation. The International Convention against Ethnic and Racial Discrimination requires that "equal access to public services" not be denied or denied on ethnic or racial grounds. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) grants the right of every citizen to be elected without discrimination, while respecting the free expression of the will of the electorate. Various constitutions provide numerous, sometimes innovative, measures to create channels for the participation of minority groups, but often minorities have to appeal in court to gain or defend their rights. In general, the right to political participation, the right to vote and to be represented in Parliament is considered important indicators in the category of effective participation in the collective sphere, because these are categories where the specific demands of communities are in conflict with the democratic principle of majority governance.

Keywords: minority, minority, minority rights and their protection, racial, religious, linguistic discrimination, Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

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Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

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