Detection of the Effect of the Action of Pesticides, Herbicides and Fungicides in the Liver Fish Barbus Peloponnesius through Biological Markers as Pollutant Indicators of the Water of the Vardar River

Gazmend Iseni, Nexhbedin Beadini, Sheqibe Beadini, Hesat Aliu, Xhezair Abdija, Leonora Qoku, Lulzana Beqiri


Fish as bio indicators have a very important role in monitoring the pollution of aquatic biotopes, as they are much sensitive to the presence of ksenobionts in the aquatic environments. Water pollution with ksenobionts (industrial pollutants, agricultural pollutants, etc.), affects in the metabolic processes of the aquatic organisms. After the penetration and absorption of ksenobit from the body, they reach biotransformation, or get conjugated with the specific structures of the cell such as specific receptors located in the peripheral part of the cell, the cell membrane and inside its cytoplasm and also in the cell organelles. ksenobiont’s connection with membrane receptors can initiate cellular processes that have toxic effects or other adverse effects on the cell itself. Such processes have negative effects in the organism which afterwards these are affected with the body organs or the whole population. As meaningful indicators that can determine the detection of ksenobionts in the aquatic environment of fish are biological markers. As a safe and adequate biomarker to determine the pollution of aquatic biotopes is cytochrome P4501A (Anzenbacherova and Anzenbacher 1999).
Keywords: fish, ksenobiontët, biomarker, cytochrome P4501A, receptor-AH etc.

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