• Afrim Aliti State University of Tetova, Macedonia


This research paper aims at describing and analysing the structural differences and similarities between the nominal functions of the –ING clauses in English and their Albanian correspondents. Regarding the Albanian correspondents of the English –ING clauses in different functions, the following correspondents have been detected: Albanian clauses are introduced by verbal noun phrases, gerund constructions, finite and non-finite clauses. In light of this, it is hypothesised that these structural differences and similarities may cause difficulties for the Albanian EFL classroom students learning the nominal functions of the –ING clauses in English.  This study is a corpus-based contrastive analysis between English and Albanian. The data collected in our corpus from both fictional and academic sources is contrasted in terms of their syntactic structures. In developing this research towards satisfactory outcomes, the study also includes an error survey of 27 Albanian students from the English Department of the Faculty of Languages, Cultures and Communication at South East European University in Tetova, and 21 students of the fourth year in secondary school at ‘Sami Frashëri’ in Kumanova. Furthermore, the findings and results of the survey are presented in the two tables labelled 7 and 8.  Subsequently, the findings and the results from this research paper may help the Albanian EFL teachers in overcoming difficulties in the teaching processes of the nominal –ING clauses in English.

Keywords: nominal –ing clause, verbal noun phrase, gerund construction, finite clause.


Primary sources

(Corpus Sources in English)

Conrad, J. (1978). Heart of Darkness. London: Penguin Books.

London, J. (1909). Martin Eden. (Volume I&II) USA: Macmillan PublishersLtd.

Steinbeck, J. (1939). The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Viking.

(Translated Versions in Albanian)

Aliu, L. (1983).Zemra e Errësirës. (J. Conrad, Trans.). Prishtinë: Redaskia e botimeve “Rilindja”. (Original work published 1978).

Demiraj, Sh. (1959). Martin Iden. (J. London, Trans.). Tiranë: Intergraph. (Original work published 1909).

Zheji, P. (1990). Vilet e Zemërimit. (J. Steinbeck, Trans.). Tiranë: ShtëpiaBotuese “NaimFrashrëri”. (Original work published 1939).

Secondary sources

Biber, D. et al (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Comrie, B. (1976). Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Çeliku, M. (1998). GramatikaPraktike e GjuhësShqipe. Tiranë: BotimetToena.

Domi, M., Agalliu F., Angoni E., dhetëtjerë. (2002). Grammatika e Gjuhës Shqipe 1.Tiranë. BotimiiAkademisësëShkencave.

Downing, A. & Locke, Ph. (2006). English Grammar: A University Course. New York: Routledge.

Duffley, J. P. (2006). The English Gerund – Participle, A Comparison with the Infinitive. Germany: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., NY

Egan, Th. (2008). Non-finite Complementation: A usage-based study of infinitive and –ing clauses in English. Netherlands: Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam – New York, NY.




How to Cite

Aliti, A. (2019). THE CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH – ING CLAUSE AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT AND ITS ALBANIAN CORRESPONDENTS. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 7. Retrieved from



Volume 7, Conference Proceedings, Special Issue, 2018