Energy Security Challenges for Countries and Military Forces in the 21st Century

Ruzhdi Rustemi

Abstract


Before 1990 the national security was dependant only on military power. Energy security was one of the fields added to the concept of security after 1990. With the end of Cold War the security concept was extended with new concepts such as economic security, social security, human security, environmental security etc. Soon, the energy security became too important and closely related to other new security fields. They are interrelated because they influence reciprocally each-other. Actually the national and global economies are still dependent on fossil fuels and gas. But they are definite resources. Also NATO countries during their daily operations are dependent on energy supply to carry out their missions. In this article I am going to present some energy security challenges facing countries and military forces in the 21st century.   

Keywords: energy security, supply, operation, fossil fuel, military forces.


Full Text:

PDF

References


A. Bochman, “Measure, Manage, Win: The Case for Operational Energy Metrics”, Joint Force Quarterly, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 114-119, 2009.

Ghanmi, A., Power and Energy in Military Operations, Technical Report, NATO Science and Technology Organization, System Analysis and Studies Panel, Task Group SAS-083, 2013.

Defense Science Board, Department of Defense Energy Security Initiatives, The AMMTIAC Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3-10, 2009.

Corley, R. M., Evaluating the Impact of the Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel, Master’s Thesis in Business Administration, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 2009.

Ghanmi, A., Modeling and Analysis of Canadian Forces Operational Energy Demand, Proceedings of the International Conference on Operations Research, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2013.

Website www.gasandoil.com/news/2015/08/11, accessed on 20 July 2018.

NATO Official Website, www.nato.int, accessed on 18 July 2018.

Dan Milstein, “Energy Security and NATO: a view from Washington”, www.nato.int/docu/review/2012, accessed on 19 July 2018.

Washington Post, 11 July 2018, “The Russian pipeline to Germany that Trump is so mad about”.

Official website of TAP, https://www.tap-ag.com/the-pipeline/project-timeline.

Wikipedia, accessed on 15 July 2018.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i7.1736

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.0001/ijllis.v7i7.1736.g2197

Copyright © 2012-2021 ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies,Tetovo, Republic of North Macedonia.

All Rights Reserved.

The publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/  View Legal Code                                                                                                                 

ISSN (print): 1857-8179. ISSN (online): 1857-8187.

Disclaimer: Articles on Anglisticum have been reviewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication.

The Journal, Editors and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.